Entrepreneurship in Indonesia and Poland Development, Obstacles and Prospects

Anna Bakiewicz
University of Social Sciences,
Warsaw, Poland
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Tulus T.H. Tambunan
Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies
University of Trisakti
Grogol, West-Jakarta, Indonesia
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Abstract

The paper examines the role played by the middle class in the development of European and Asian capitalism. In particular, this comparative study of Indonesia and Poland is to enlarge understanding of the actual and potential importance of the development of entrepreneurship for economic, political and social development. Especially, it aims at drawing some lessons from the experiences of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), which are generally viewed as the important basis of both entrepreneurship and middle class development in the two countries. This study is based on some premises and observations concerning both the selected economies, the development of entrepreneurship, and the role of MSMEs. This paper presents static and dynamic comparisons of MSMEs development in Indonesia and Poland. Next, the discussion of the determinants of the MSMEs development follows. It covers factors on both global and national levels with the economic policy included. Finally, it tries to identify the consequences of the expansion of the entrepreneurship and the middle class in the two economies for their economic, political and social development. In conclusions the paper suggests some ideas concerning both the role of entrepreneurship in development, the modernization of the MSMEs sector and finally, the institutional support instruments that seem to be economically reasonable.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, MSMEs, Poland, Indonesia, middle class
JEL codes: D21, D23, L25, L26


 

International Journal of Small and Medium Enterprises and Business Sustainability,Vol.1, No.2 (November 2015), pp. 1 - 32 
© 2015 by Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies, USAKTI
ISSN:2442-9368 electronic 


 

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Decision Making in Financial Strategies from Small Business

M.C. Grecia Itzel Tirado Gálvez
Accounting and Business Administration Faculty
Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa
Culiacán, Sinaloa, México
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Claudia Lizbeth Tirado Gálvez
Accounting and Business Administration Faculty
Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa
Culiacán, Sinaloa, México
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Marcela Rebeca Contreras Loera
Universidad de Occidente
Culiacán, Sinaloa, México
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Abstract

The role of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide is considered key because of its considerable input with regard to the production and distribution of tangible and intangible assets; at the same time, they are considered flexible because they have rapid adaptation to technological change and potential to create jobs. In this regard, SMEs give the means to promote economic development and competitiveness of any locality. In this context, it is clear the importance of SMEs internationally. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the decision-making on financial strategies from small business. The research was conducted under the qualitative methodological perspective, by focusing on analysis of primary data collected through interviews and observation, and secondary information obtained through books, scientific articles and newsletters produced by federal and state organizations in Mexico. This research is preliminary only and it will serve as a preparation for future detailed study. The findings indicate that financial strategies proposed by the owner of the small business does not embody the necessary elements to achieve them properly, and that even when written goals are set, these have not given a real track, but only remain in paper without proper follow up or incentives for sellers to be motivated to reach sales levels that should be achieved to address the planned expenditures. In this regard it is noted how the process of decision making is not followed in a proper way because it lacks a real analysis of alternatives and on the other hand it its seen that the financial strategy is left embodied without follow up, because of this motive the established goals are not reached.

Keywords: Financial Strategy, SMEs, decision making.
JEL codes: G01, M190


 

International Journal of Small and Medium Enterprises and Business Sustainability,Vol.1, No.2 (November 2015), pp. 33 - 49 
© 2015 by Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies, USAKTI
ISSN:2442-9368 electronic 


 

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Towards sustainable global value chains in Asia and the Pacific

Masato Abe
Business and Development Section, Trade and Investment Division
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
UN Building, Rajadamnern Nok Avenue
Bangkok 10200, Thailand
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Abstract

This paper examines the present development of global value chains (GVCs), with particular attentions to the capacity building of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and the adoption of sustainable development agenda. The recent findings of both academic and policy literature on GVCs provide useful implications for both Governments and the business communities in Asia and the Pacific. The linkages between corporate and GVCs’ sustainability are explored, with special attention given to SMEs’ growing participation. More specifically, the paper highlights growth implications and challenges for SMEs in the context of specific industrial GVCs (agribusiness, garments and apparel, and automotive parts). The concepts of corporate social responsibility (CSR), circular economy, social investment and sustainability reporting are also examined in the context of relevance for and linkages with GVCs. Those analyses conclude with a number of policy options for national strategies and the design of economic policies to enhance the competitiveness of SMEs as well as the sustainability of GVCs.

Keywords: Asia and the Pacific, CSR, GVC, SME, sustainable development
JEL codes: F23, L53, M16, M38


 

International Journal of Small and Medium Enterprises and Business Sustainability,Vol.1, No.2 (November 2015), pp. 79 - 108 
© 2015 by Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies, USAKTI
ISSN:2442-9368 electronic 


 

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Building Confidence, Competence and Connectivity: An Entrepreneurship Learning Methodology for Women at Risk in Dolly, Surabaya, Indonesia

Antonius Tanan
Universitas Ciputra Entrepreneurship Center
DBS Tower 39th floor, Jl Satrio kav 3-5
Jakarta 12940, Indonesia
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Siew Mee Barton
Department of Management, Faculty of Business & Law
Deakin University
Melbourne Burwood Campus, 70 Elgar Road
Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
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Abstract

It is popular to argue that entrepreneurs are ‘born not made’. There is no question that personality type and innate strengths do play a significant role in equipping individuals to function as entrepreneurs but it is also clear that a lot of the capacity building that can assist somebody in starting their own business, and successfully developing it, involves skills, knowledge and attitudes that can be taught. This paper discusses one model of teaching entrepreneurship that has arisen out of the experience of working with vulnerable individuals who lack specific skills, capital and education. The initial development of this model took place when Ciputra University (UC) began working with women formerly involved in the sex-worker industry in Surabaya’s infamous Dolly neighborhood. These women had very modest levels of formal education, limited life experience, little confidence that they could ever succeed outside the profession that they had known and few skills to facilitate alternative employment. The educational model developed to assist them is broadly applicable to those coming into entrepreneurship with little education or background in business. This model is built around three essential elements, summarised as: Confidence, Competence and Connectedness (‘the 3Cs’). Confidence is built through culinary training for a learning outcome from a psychomotor domain.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, former sex-workers, confidence, competence, social capital, Indonesia
JJEL codes: I2, I250, I310, O350


 

International Journal of Small and Medium Enterprises and Business Sustainability,Vol.1, No.2 (November 2015), pp. 50 - 78 
© 2015 by Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies, USAKTI
ISSN:2442-9368 electronic 


 

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A Study of Corporate Cash Holding Behaviors During Economic Transition in China: 1999-2007

Yuwei Fang
Postal Soft-Science Research Center,
Postal Scientific Research and Planning Academy, Beijing, China.
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Qingjie Xia
School of Economics
Peking University, Beijing, China
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Abstract

Based on a panel data of all manufacturers for the period from 1999 to 2007 in China, this paper examines the relationship between liquidity preferences of firm and external financing environment. By applying the model of cash flow sensitivity of cash, this paper reveals that (i) although all firms encounter more or less financial constraints, state-owned enterprises (SOEs) get greater access to capital market and hence display positive cash flow sensitivity of cash; (ii) the fast growth of non-SOEs intensified financial constraints (but provide large amount of cash flow which is particularly true for the firms at their initial development stage and become the major financial resource for their further development), exhibits as the substitution of saving with investment; and (iii) the impact of financial constraints on the growth of non-SOEs increases with the size of the firms, which shows higher cash flow sensitivity of cash.

Key words: cash holdings, cash flow sensitivity of cash, financial constraints
JEL codes: O16, O53, G21


 

International Journal of Small and Medium Enterprises and Business Sustainability,Vol.1, No.2 (November 2015), pp. 109 - 133 
© 2015 by Center for Industry, SME and Business Competition Studies, USAKTI
ISSN:2442-9368 electronic 


 

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